Audit Laws

Back to Audit Law Database

Audit Laws

State Summary

Vermont’s audit statute was signed into law in 2007. With the passage of SB 86 in 2014, Vermont post-election audits became mandatory rather than at the discretion of the secretary of state. Vermont’s post-election audits are not binding on official results and do not lead to full recounts. Rules and procedures for Vermont’s post-election audit are found in 17 Vt. Stat. Ann. §2493 and the Code of Vermont Rules (CVR) 04-010-001, which was amended in 2019.

Unless otherwise specified, statutory references are to 17 Vt. Stat. Ann. §2493.

Voting Systems Used

Vermont primarily uses hand marked paper ballots statewide, with ballot marking devices for accessibility. Jurisdictions in Vermont use optical scanners or hand counts for tabulation of paper ballots. For the most up to date information please visit Verified Voting’s Verifier.

For an explanation on the types of voting equipment used, click here.

Audit Comprehensiveness

The secretary conducts an audit of “any polling place election results” which includes ballots counted by hand on election day. See 17 Vt. Stat. Ann. §2493(a)(3)(C). While the statute is silent on the number of polling places to be audited, CVR 04-010-001(E)(a) specifies that the Secretary of State must conduct a random audit of at least six polling place’s election results.


The secretary of state is to “publicly announce the results of the audit as well as the results from the original return of the vote.” See 17 Vt. Stat. Ann. §2493(a)(3)(C). The same rules that apply for the initial counting of the ballots apply for the audit. CVR 04-010-001(E)(a) specifies that the audit is public. There is no reference as to whether the public can verify marks on the ballots.

Audit Counting Method

The counting method used for the audit is the same as the counting method used in the polling place on election day (i.e. polling places that were hand counted would be audited by hand count and polling places that used tabulators would be audited by tabulators). Thus, local choice determines both counting methods.

Type Of Audit Units

The statute calls for random sampling of polling places. It does not set any requirements regarding the sample size. However, CVR 04-010-001(E)(a) specifies that the Secretary of State must conduct a random audit of at least six polling place’s election results.

Contests & Issues Audited

Vermont’s statute does not explicitly specify the scope of the audit, but in practice, all contests on the ballot are audited.

Addressing Discrepancies

No statutory guidance is provided on this matter. For recount laws, see Citizens for Election Integrity Minnesota website.


The audit must be conducted within 30 days of the election.

Binding On Official Outcomes

The audit results may be used as a basis for investigating potential election fraud, but they do not automatically change the official results and cannot alter outcomes.

Oversight & Conduct

By statute and rule, the Secretary of State both conducts and oversees the audit. (However, in practice the audit has been conducted by a third-party contractor under supervision.) Should the audit results suggest potential election fraud, further action may be taken by the Attorney General.

Ballot Protection

All ballot boxes shall be rigid wood or metal containers. See 17 Vt. State. Ann. § 2506. The town clerk shall safely store the sealed containers with all voting materials and shall not permit them to be removed from his or her custody or tampered with in any way. For more information, see 17 Vt. Stat. Ann. § 2590.

CVR 04-010-001(E)(j) specifies that the Secretary of State must reseal the ballots in their original bags, with new seal numbers. The ballot bags are then securely stored by the Secretary of State until local officials retrieve the ballot bags.

Additional Targeted Samples

No statutory guidance is provided on this matter.

Donate to Verified Voting

A strong and healthy democracy depends on the security of our elections. Join us and help ensure that every vote counts.

Join Our Mailing List

The election landscape is constantly changing and full of complexities. We’ll keep you informed on what’s happening, and what we’re doing to make elections accurate and secure.