Our team’s library of resources and reports on election security and verification.

resource Election Night Hand Counts: Realities and Risks Date: November 2023 Authors: Verified Voting

This paper examines the risks of full election night hand counts, explains when hand counts should be used, and emphasizes why common-sense best practices that employ voting machines and post-election audits make our election outcomes verifiable and resilient.

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report Casting Votes Safely: Examining Internet Voting’s Dangers and Highlighting Safer Alternatives Date: October 2023 Authors: Verified Voting

Democracy depends on citizens’ trust in our elections, the ability to cast a ballot without obstacles, and having
verifiable proof that the winner won and the loser lost. If expanded, internet voting would undermine the fundamental
principles of our democracy: private and trustworthy elections that give voters justified confidence that their
votes were counted as cast. We address internet voting’s dangers and discuss better options that enable voter
enfranchisement while still protecting the security of our elections.

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resource About Risk-Limiting Audit Pilots Date: June 2023 Authors: Verified Voting

Verified Voting’s downloadable resource on what risk-limiting audit pilots are and how Verified Voting helps jurisdictions across the country conduct them.

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report Preparing for 2024: Election Technology and the Battle Against Disinformation Date: May 2023 Authors: Verified Voting

Our paper explains how, despite continued disinformation about the security of voting systems, U.S. voting equipment deployment has become more resilient over time—and how, with the right resources, election officials can make more improvements to how elections are administered ahead of the 2024 elections.

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resource Electronic Ballot Return Is Dangerously Insecure Date: April 11, 2023 Authors: Verified Voting

A downloadable resource explaining why expanding insecure technology like internet voting makes election results less trustworthy — at a time when having secure and verifiable elections is more important than ever.

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resource Coordinating Audits and Recounts to Strengthen Election Verification Date: November 2022 Authors: Verified Voting and Citizens for Election Integrity Minnesota

This paper, coauthored by Verified Voting and Citizens for Election Integrity Minnesota, describes how to dovetail audits and recounts to bolster public confidence in election results. Every state can do better, and this paper provides guidelines for how.

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report Annual Report 2021 Date: May 31, 2022 Authors: Verified Voting

MORE Voting Equipment, Post-Election Audit, Paper Records, Internet Voting, Election Security
resource Verified Voting’s Risk-Limiting Audit Messaging Guide for Election Officials Date: updated February 1, 2023 Authors: Verified Voting

Intended for election officials, this messaging guide provides tips and language when talking about RLAs to constituents, the press, and other key stakeholders. 

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resource What is a Risk-Limiting Audit? Date: March 14, 2022 Authors: Verified Voting

Downloadable resource on the fundamentals of a risk-limiting audit (RLA), including what is needed to conduct an RLA and how an RLA differs from other types of audits.

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Resource Good vs. Ugly: How to Spot True Post-Election Audits From Sham Reviews Date: October 21, 2021 Authors: Verified Voting

Post-election audits play a significant role in providing evidence that voters can trust election outcomes, but we continue to see calls for sham reviews disguised as “audits.” Sham reviews are designed to undermine legitimate election results, mislead the public, and ultimately leave our elections – and our democracy – less secure. Here’s how to tell the difference.

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report The Price of Voting: Today’s Voting Machine Marketplace Date: March 2021 Authors: Matthew Caulfield, Principal Investigator

The Price of Voting draws on probably the largest dataset of voting system contracts ever assembled, spanning well over 400 jurisdictions. This wealth of examples provides unprecedented insight into vendors’ pricing strategies, including their wide use of ad hoc discounts and their sizable annual support revenues. The report astutely combines quantitative analysis and case studies to make best use of the available data. At the same time, The Price of Voting is admirably candid about its limitations and cautious in its generalizations. Public officials preparing to acquire voting systems, and citizens concerned about voting system negotiations and contracts, will better understand the challenges after reading it.

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report Annual Report 2020 Date: February 2021 Authors: Verified Voting

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Resource Electronic Poll Book Use in the United States Date: August 31, 2020 Authors: Verified Voting

The use of electronic poll books has increased significantly in recent elections. Almost three quarters of registered voters live in jurisdictions in which electronic poll books will be used to check in voters for in person voting at Election Day polling places this November. The Verified Voting team has collected data on electronic poll books, including the makes and models in use across the country, and added it to the Verifier, our comprehensive data set of voting equipment usage. 


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resource T-90 Days: Recommendations for Voting During a Pandemic Date: August 12, 2020 Authors: Verified Voting

With less than three months before the general election, COVID-19 cases are rising, foreign interference and disinformation threats persist, and destructive narratives about rigging and fraud threaten to delegitimize the results. However, immediate steps can still be taken so ensure the security and verifiability of our elections.

MORE Voting Equipment, Post-Election Audit, Paper Records, Internet Voting, Election Security
report COVID-19 and the Surge of Mail Ballots: Managing an Unprecedented Volume in the November 2020 Election Date: August 3, 2020 Authors: Verified Voting

Jurisdictions across the country have seen a significant increase in mail voting during their 2020 primary elections due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Several jurisdictions have required additional time to tabulate results — an indication that they will likely need more time and resources for the November general election. Verified Voting completed an analysis to better understand how many jurisdictions currently counting mail ballots on hand-fed scanners or by hand may face an unprecedented volume of mail ballots for this technology in the 2020 general election.

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resource Election Security and an Accessible Vote By Mail Option Date: May 22, 2020 Authors: Verified Voting and Common Cause

Guidance by Common Cause and Verified Voting outlines that remote accessible vote by mail options that keep voters choices private and secure already exist and should be made available to voters with disabilities as states increase access to vote by mail.

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resource COVID-19 and Trustworthy Elections Date: April 10, 2020 Authors: Verified Voting

Election security and verification must remain a priority as election officials and policymakers around the country respond to the COVID-19 pandemic. Here are Verified Voting’s recommendations centered on election security and verification.

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resource Risk-Limiting Audits: Frequently Asked Questions and Answers Date: 2020 Authors: Brennan Center, Common Cause, and Verified Voting

Answers to frequently asked questions specifically on RLAs. Defines what “risk” signifies in an RLA and details different RLA methods.

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resource Differences Between RLA Methods Date: November 27, 2019 Authors: Verified Voting in consultation with Lynn Garland, Independent Advisor, and with the Brennan Center for Justice at NYU School of Law.

Our guide describing three RLA methods: ballot-level comparison, batch comparison, and ballot polling. This chart was developed by Verified Voting in consultation with Lynn Garland, Independent Advisor, and with the Brennan Center for Justice at NYU School of Law.

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resource Policy on Direct Recording Electronic Voting Machines and Ballot Marking Devices Date: November 21, 2019 Authors: Verified Voting

The following is a policy statement issued by the staff of Verified Voting Foundation on the use of Direct Recording Electronic voting systems and Ballot Marking Devices. Ahead of the 2020 presidential election, the U.S. finds itself again in the position of widespread deployment of a relatively newer voting technology — ballot marking devices (“BMDs”). Because devices vary widely, Verified Voting is explicitly stating our current views on evaluation, ongoing development and best practice deployment of this technology.

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resource Characteristics of Currently Available Ballot Marking Devices, by Vendor Date: October 2019 Authors: Verified Voting

A guide comparing the features of ballot marking devices (BMDs) available in the United States. The guide is intended to be a useful comparison chart between the various BMD vendors and devices for informational purposes. Verified Voting does not endorse any specific vendor or device.

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report Pilot Implementation Study of Risk-Limiting Audit Methods in the State of Rhode Island Date: September 4, 2019 Authors: Rhode Island RLA Working Group

This report details how, through a collaborative effort, Rhode Island successfully conducted three pilot RLAs. It provides a general overview of RLAs, including the advantages and disadvantages of each method and can be used as a case study for successfully conducting a RLA. The report describes the history of election administration in Rhode Island, which has led to the environment in which elections are conducted in the state today. It also lays out the essential components of the audits – their design, software tools, and presentation – and provides the results of the audits. Finally, the report describes some of the key lessons learned throughout the process, and it makes recommendations for future audits.

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resource Audit Pilots Program Overview Date: 2019 Authors: Verified Voting

Experts agree that risk-limiting audits, or RLAs, are the best method for providing evidence-based reassurance that an election outcome is accurate, or identifying when an anomaly requires further investigation. Despite this consensus, only two states currently have statutory requirements for true RLAs. Verified Voting and our RLA Pilots want to change that.

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report Written Testimony For U.S. House Committee On House Administration Hearing On “Election Security” Date: May 8, 2019 Authors: Marian K. Schneider

Excerpt: “We urge the Committee to move expeditiously to support state and local jurisdictions in strengthening their election systems and provide upfront and sustained investment in election infrastructure and security. “

MORE Voting Equipment, Post-Election Audit, Paper Records, Internet Voting, Election Security
resource Principles and Best Practices for Post-Election Tabulation Audits Date: December 2018 Authors: Multiple

Details the nine principles and best practices meant to guide the regulation and design of high-quality post-election audits and is endorsed by the American Statistical Association and organizations within the election security coalition.

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report Orange County, CA Pilot Risk-Limiting Audit Date: December 7, 2018 Authors: Verified Voting

Report on the RLA pilot conducted in the City of Fairfax, Virginia, the state’s first RLA pilot.

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report City of Fairfax, VA Pilot Risk-Limiting Audit Report Date: December 7, 2018 Authors: Verified Voting

Report on the RLA pilot conducted in the City of Fairfax, Virginia, the state’s first RLA pilot.

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resource Are You Ready to Audit? Date: October, 2018 Authors: Verified Voting

A checklist for audit implementation.

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resource Checking the Paper Record: A Guide for Public Oversight of Tabulation Audits Date: August 2018 Authors: Verified Voting

A guide for public oversight of tabulation audits.

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resource A Verified Voting Flowchart for Conducting Risk-Limiting Audits Date: July, 2018 Authors: Verified Voting

Verified Voting’s handy flowchart for conducting Risk-Limiting Audits.

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resource Principles for New Voting Systems Date: February 1, 2015 Authors: Verified Voting

Any new voting system should conform to these principles.

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Resource If I Can Shop and Bank Online, Why Can’t I Vote Online? Date: 2014 Authors: David Jefferson, Board Member

Voting security, privacy, and transparency requirements are structurally different from those for E-Commerce transactions 

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report Changes Ahead: A Look at Voting System Testing and Certification Date: June, 2013 Authors: Pamela Smith

This informal report provides a look inside the framework for voting system testing and certification in the states and the nation, and explores how California’s current process fits into that framework.

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report Counting Votes 2012: A State by State Look at Election Preparedness Date: July, 2012 Authors: Verified Voting Foundation, Common Cause, and the Rutgers School of Law

In July, 2012, the Verified Voting Foundation, together with Common Cause and the Rutgers School of Law released a report that surveyed election preparedness for the 2012 General Election.

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resource What About Email and Fax Voting? Date: June, 2011 Authors: David Jefferson, Board Member

A paper on the problems with the electronic transmission of voted ballots.

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resource Summary of the Problem with Electronic Voting Date: June, 2005 Authors: Verified Voting

The 2000 presidential election and the consequential actions of Congress and the states are dramatically changing the American election process.

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